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Covid -19 and Nanoparticles

Ramendra Pati Pandey, Assistant Professor, SRM University

Deepika, Department of Biotechnology, Deenbandhu Choturam University

Reshma, Department of Biotechnology, Royal Global University

Neehasri, Department of Zoology, Gauhati University

The coronavirus family is divided into four subgroups, and the COVID-19 virus belongs to the beta group. Fear is a versatile reaction within the sight of peril. Be that as it may, when danger is unsure and consistent, as in the ebb and flow coronavirus ailment (COVID-19) pandemic, dread can get ceaseless and troublesome. So, we here attempted to upgrade the medication accessibility and doing survey over the Use of bio-nanoparticles.

Introduction:

In field of Nanotechnology and Nano medicine there are large number of nanomaterials are used to deliver drug having properties like improving solubility, extending formulation’s action, different degrees of lipophilicity or hydrophilicity less toxicity and many more.  Chitosan based nanoparticles have been various applications in different diseases including brain, ocular infections, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal diseases and cancer. Besides of oral, nasal, pulmonary or vaginal route for drug delivery mucosal route is more feasible and attention gaining part with low toxicity, appropriate physical properties and good muco adhesion.  Drugs can be distributed by chitosan-based nanoparticles through three mechanisms: swelling, diffusion, and erosion. Because chitosan-based nanoparticles can successfully enter the lungs and provide a high surface area in pulmonary route medicine, they can be used in COVID-19. In the fields of nanotechnology and nanomedicine, a wide range of nanomaterials are employed to deliver drugs with qualities such as improved solubility, extended formulation action, various degrees of lipophilicity or hydrophilicity, reduced toxicity, and so on. Surface qualities, shape, size, treatment efficacy, drug system release and loading, and other physicochemical parameters of nanoparticle drug delivery systems are among them. Nanoparticle surface characteristics influenced drug molecule biocompatibility, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics.

Bio polymeric nanoparticles:

The size of nanoparticles can be kept steady by controlling the flow velocity of a desolvating agent. The electrospray method is a single-step, fairly complicated multipurpose method that yields improved yield and reliability. The electrostatic force is utilised to break liquid from a macroscopic mass, resulting in nanometer/micrometer-sized particles. Dried porous particles are generated when solvents are sublimed. Freeze-drying is a good option for heat- and pressure-sensitive materials. However, this process has a disadvantage in that it is time consuming and costly, and the resulting particle size is often larger. The new layer-by-layer self-assembly method multilayer can be useful for sequential multilayer film production, which completed hydrophobic, electrostatic contacts and hydrogen bonding among the films from side to side. Interactions aid in the deposition of alternating layers of opposing charged biomaterials and provide fine control in the construction of nanoscopic properties such as thickness, surface characteristics, and film composition.

Covid -19 and Bio nanoparticles:

The bio nanoparticles generated excellent results in past studies. We also discovered that employing this method to treat Covid -19 would be tremendously beneficial to the community. In recent trials, nanoparticles were discovered to be effective in the delivery of COVID-19 medications. In many circumstances, it has been seen that patients receiving drugs provided through nanoparticles have absolutely minimal negative effects. Interferon (IFN-α), lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine phosphate, ribavirin, and arbidol are some of the drugs used to prevent COVID-19. In February, a new medicine called Favipiravir was approved and has high utility to treat patients infected with covid-19. To have high efficacy, high dissolution rate, and low toxicity, all of these medications must be delivered into the human body within a specified range. These medications can be administered with bio polymeric a nanoparticle, which reduces the risk of chronic toxicity and improves drug delivery efficiency. Chitosan Nanoparticles can be used to create a variety of antibody molecules that can then be given to patients to improve their chances of recovery (Neehasri et al 2021). COVID-19 is an exceptionally deadly respiratory malady that is quickly spreading and has caused universal tension. At present, it is analysed by identifying the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic corrosive through continuous RT-PCR. Nanoparticles are small however have a huge surface-to-volume proportion, which gives them remarkable, extraordinary highlights. Due to these highlights, nanoparticles have been utilised in the fields of biotechnology, medication, sedate conveyance, sensors, and DNA naming and are treated as a scaffold between mass materials. The consideration point for diagnosing COVID-19 is the horizontal stream antigen site for SARS-CoV-2. A paper-like film strip is covered with two lines: one carries gold nanoparticle-immuniser conjugates, while the other receives antibodies for testing. At the point, Singular gold nanoparticles are red, and the coupled Plasmon groups cause the arrangement containing the bunched gold nanoparticles to turn blue. Optical biosensor nanotechnology will allow for the accurate identification of the coronavirus from patient samples in roughly 30 minutes without the use of included research centre procedures. This new innovation could without much of a stretch decide if a patient is contaminated with the coronavirus or the flu infection. This research may be used for purposes other than the present pandemic, such as treating patients. The novel biosensor device will also be used to break down several forms of coronaviruses.

Future perspectives:

Management of critical COVID-19 patients is important for reducing the mortality of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Its key measures lie in monitoring, prevention and timely intervention. It is crucial for understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease. Studies to assist in the design of specific therapeutics to manage the virus are being conducted in order to reduce lung damage and improve immune responses. If the Bio-nanoparticles were used for covid-19 treatment they were definitely help for the patients.  We here sum up the current information to manage potential treatment COVID-19. It is imperative to alert perusers that new information refreshing consistently with respect to clinical qualities, analyze, treatment choices, and results   for COVID-19. In any instance, improved steady consideration is still the cornerstone of treatment, and the clinical viability of the resulting specialists is still being investigated or tested in clinical studies.

The majority of current clinical and preclinical antiviral treatment information comes from several viruses.

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, and non-coronaviruses (Ebola).  A proven COVID 19 patient requires complete bed rest and consistent treatment, as well as adequate calorie and water intake to reduce the risk of dehydration.

Water electrolyte parity and homeostasis need to keep up alongside the of checking indispensable signs and oxygen immersion; keeping respiratory lot unhampered and breathing in oxygen in more extreme cases; estimating blood tally, Creactive protein, pee test, and other blood biochemical records including liver and kidney work, myocardial catalyst range, and coagulation work as per patient's conditions. Control measures are required for patients with a high fever. Antipyretic medication treatment ought to be acted in the event that the temperature surpasses 38.5 °C. As a prophylactic strategy to bring down the temperature, warm water showers and antipyretic patches are preferred. Ibuprofen orally, 5–10 mg/kg invariably; acetaminophen orally, 10–15 mg/kg invariably are the most common treatments.. Need to manage narcotic emerges on the off chance that the kid experiences spasms or seizure. As the disease spreads to the lungs, the chances of hypoxia increase. The patient should be given a nasal catheter and cover oxygen as soon as possible. In an emergency, the patient should be offered non-intrusive or obtrusive mechanical ventilation.  A few groups shared their conventions which are summed up in the underneath table. Usually, the groups will send reagents or reagent blenders from their research facilities, with or without associated fees. It is strongly advised that you contact the researcher. The rundown summed up underneath isn't comprehensive and is being refreshed every once in a while.

Reference:

1.    Neehasri Kumar Chowdhury,  Deepika, Reshma Choudhury, Gaurav Ambadas Sonawane, Shankar Mavinamar, Xiaoming Lyu, Ramendra Pati Pandey, Chung-Ming Chang, Nanoparticles as an effective drug delivery system in COVID-19, Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 143, 2021, 112162, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112162.
2.    Ko, W.-C., Rolain, J.-M., Lee, N.-Y., Chen, P.-L., Huang, C.-T., Lee, P.-I., & Hsueh, P.-R. (2020). Arguments in favour of remdesivir for treating SARS-CoV-2 infections. International journal of antimicrobial agents.
3.     Kupper, S., Kłosowska-Chomiczewska, I., & Szumała, P. (2017). Collagen and hyaluronic acid hydrogel in water-in-oil microemulsion delivery systems. Carbohydrate polymers, 175, 347-354.
4.     Leo, E., Arletti, R., Forni, F., & Cameroni, R. (1997). General and cardiac toxicity of doxorubicin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles. Farmaco (Societa chimica italiana: 1989), 52(6-7), 385-388.
5.     Liang, W., Chan, A. Y., Chow, M. Y., Lo, F. F., Qiu, Y., Kwok, P. C., & Lam, J. K. (2018). Spray freeze drying of small nucleic acids as inhaled powder for pulmonary delivery. asian journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 13(2), 163-172.
6.     Liechty, W. B., Kryscio, D. R., Slaughter, B. V., & Peppas, N. A. (2010). Polymers for drug delivery systems. Annual review of chemical and biomolecular engineering, 1, 149-173.
7.     Li SF, Lacher B, Crain EF. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen dosing by parents. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2000 Dec;16(6):394-7.
8.     Liu, G., Li, L., Huo, D., Li, Y., Wu, Y., Zeng, L., . . . Zhu, C. (2017). A VEGF delivery system targeting MI improves angiogenesis and cardiac function based on the tropism of MSCs and layer-by-layer self-assembly. Biomaterials, 127, 117-131.
9.     Liu, X., & Wang, X.-J. (2020). Potential inhibitors against 2019-nCoV coronavirus M protease from clinically approved medicines. Journal of Genetics and Genomics, 47(2), 119.
10.     Luo, C., Okubo, T., Nangrejo, M., & Edirisinghe, M. (2015). Preparation of polymeric nanoparticles by novel electrospray nanoprecipitation. Polymer International, 64(2), 183-187.
11.    Mehta, P., McAuley, D. F., Brown, M., Sanchez, E., Tattersall, R. S., Manson, J. J., & Collaboration, H. A. S. (2020). COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. Lancet (London, England), 395(10229), 1033.
12.    Mohammed, M. A., Syeda, J., Wasan, K. M., & Wasan, E. K. (2017). An overview of chitosan nanoparticles and its application in non-parenteral drug delivery. Pharmaceutics, 9(4), 53.

Ramendra Pati Pandey

Ramendra Pati Pandey is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biotechnology/Microbiology/Biomedical Engineering at the SRM University, Delhi-NCR, Sonepat. He was a FAPESP Post-Doctoral Fellow a very prestigious fellowship of Latin America at the Department of Medicine-InCor/HC-FMUSP, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Deepika

Deepika has completed here master degree from Department of Biotechnology, Deenbandhu Choturam University and Technology, Sonepat, Haryana, India.

Reshma

Reshma completed her master's degree from the Royal Global University in Guwahati, Assam, India's department of Biotechnology.

Neehasri

Neehasri holds a master's degree in Zoology from Gauhati University in Guwahati, Assam, India, and has also passed the B.Ed. professional exam.

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