Nanotechnology-based Inhalation Treatment for Lung Cancer

Ms.Priya Patel ,  Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, India.

From the decades drug delivery via pulmonary route become an attractive route to treat various diseases. Nanotechnology based drug delivery system for pulmonary specially polymeric, SLN, Liposomal nanoparticles are designed to targeted formulations to the specific site along with improved bioavailability and stability of the formulations. But still numerous challenges are expected regarding toxicity of nanoparticles.

The lungs are the primary organ of the respiratory system. The respiratory system works with the circulatory system to deliver oxygen from the lungs to the cells and remove carbon dioxide, and return it to the lungs to be exhaled. Respiration means exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air, blood and body tissues. Lungs represent an attractive alternative route of drug delivery along with they have large area for deposition of therapeutic and systemic delivery of various pharmaceutical drugs. The main function of the human respiratory system is to transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the blood, and to expel carbon dioxide from the body. Lung cancer is a disease which consists of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to metastasis, which is the invasion of adjacent tissue and infiltration beyond the lungs. The vast majority of primary lung cancers are carcinomas of the lung, derived from epithelial cells. Lung cancer kills about 1.5 million men and women around the world, the major reason behind the poor survival rate; of the different type of lung cancer is failure of early detection and confirmation only made at the stage IV. Lung cancer is mainly categorized into two forms; namelynon-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) which is majority occur approx. 85% and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Still survival rate and improved quality of life of lung cancer patients is not completely fulfilled due to the drug was not reach to the targeted site and produce unwanted side effects to healthy tissue also.

In addition, due to the first pass metabolism oral administration of cancer chemotherapeuticsis limited. For improve patient compliance drug targeting in lung cancer with minimum systemic exposure can play an important lead role.

In this direction, new research indicates that drug directly inhale to the lung for that inhalation therapy shows enormous potential including reduces systemic damage done to healthy lung cells and other organs while improving the treatment of lung tumors. Due to the size dependent properties of nanoparticles its introduces a new paradigm in drug therapeutic effect by chances of cell targeted drug delivery with minimum systemic side effects. Nanoparticles have been studied as a multifunctional strategy, in which a single molecule allows detection, diagnosis, imaging, cell destruction and delivery of drugs, Nanoparticles are extremely small particles that can be modified for a variety of uses in the medical field.

Pulmonary drug delivery in our post-genomics era has opened the door to non-invasive administration of a wide variety of macromolecules. Since drug delivery by the pulmonary route is now practical, drug companies can reconsider the development of new macromolecules and small molecules whose markets are limited as an injectable or when given by mouth. So by inhalation drug delivery system patient life should extend by increase patient compliance and reduce health care cost. Because of the advances in biotechnology that have resulted not only in new macromolecules but also in new devices to deliver them via the lungs, patients and physicians will soon be able to use this route to treat diseases such as diabetes, hepatitis, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis, genetic emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and other pulmonary infections among others.

The idea of the inhalation treatment of nanomaterials is highly innovative in that the particles get sent directly into the lungs, bypassing travel through the bloodstream and through other organs; therefore, no harm comes to other cells in the body due to the toxic medication used to combat the cancer cells. There are a number of factors that researchers must consider with regards to treatment using inhalation mainly the dose of drug, tumour size, method of inhalation (ie. Inhaler, nebulizer, etc), liposome or microparticles for the nanotechnology being used much more. It has been shown that adding 5-7 per cent carbon dioxide in the mixture greatly increases the effectiveness of absorption of the drug by the lungs. Many several efficient inhalation drug delivery devices were already developed, tested and implemented in clinical practice, and some research is going on. But still the formulation of efficient drug delivery systems for local targeted inhalation delivery of various therapeutic in the developmental stage. Recent advances in nanotechnology open a door for enhancing the efficacy of inhalation treatment of different lung diseases.

Mainly nanotechnology should be used to design drug delivery system for deliver therapeutic agents to the targeted tissue for enhanced therapeutic effects and reduced the side effects.

Rapid advances in the field of nanotechnology and nanoscience have lead to integration of nanoscience with various fields. Recent studies show that bringing nanotechnology to the pharmaceutical aerosol field can help overcome drawbacks associated with the conventional drug delivery and aid in obtaining more efficient and efficacious mode of drug presentation to the lung.

In concern, to develop a safe and effective delivery system, nanotechnology provides a potential platform by overcoming the various limitations associated with traditional delivery systems, also offers several advantages such as enhanced payload, protect therapeutic molecules from biodegradation, prolonged circulation time, enhanced solubility and chemical stability, enhanced intratumoral accumulation and diminished side effects. Thenano-scale delivery systems revolutionized the cancer treatment by enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer agents.

Now days, even though many interesting and improved way of practicing are on clinical trial concerning wide use of nanomedicine based lung cancer drug delivery, there is work left behind scientist to fully apply this technology to increase patient outcome and decrease healthy cost. Generally, nanomedicine shows promising effect concerning lung cancer management and diagnosis beyond certain challenge associated with it.

Priya Patel

Priya Patel is working as an Assistant Professor in Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, India. She has 5 years of teaching and research experience, has published 12 papers in various national and international journals and presented 15 papers in various national and international conferences as author and coauthor.