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Analysis of Altered Level of Blood-based Biomarkers in Prognosis of COVID-19 Patients

Mahendra Raj Shrestha, Ajaya Basnet, Basanta Tamang, Sudip Khadka, Rajendra Maharjan, Rupak Maharjan, Arun Bahadur Chand, Suresh Thapa, Shiba Kumar Rai.


Immune and inflammatory responses developed by the patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) during rapid disease progression result in an altered level of biomarkers. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze levels of blood-based biomarkers that are significantly altered in patients with COVID–19.


Ever since the first case of COVID-19 caused pneumonia due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), an enveloped RNA beta Coronavirus was reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December 2019, the viral infection spread rapidly around the world and subsequently reached pandemic level, as declared by World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020.
Since the beginning, COVID-19 has exerted persistent pressure on health care systems to categorize patients into risk groups following diagnosis.

Materials and Methods:

A cross-sectional study was conducted on hospitalized COVID-19 patients at COVID-dedicated Nepal Armed Police Force Hospital (NAPFH), Kathmandu, Nepal. COVID-19 patients, confirmed positive by rtRT-PCR of nasopharyngeal swab samples, of any age and gender, admitted to the hospital from April 14, 2021, to September 14, 2021, were included in the study. All COVID-19 non-confirmed cases and COVID-19 patients on corticosteroid therapy were excluded from the study.


The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has placed a massive burden on the global healthcare system. A lack of prediction capability as to which cases are likely to progress onto severe forms has been a huge challenge in the proper management of COVID-19 positive cases. Blood-based laboratory biomarkers can provide valuable prognostic information for patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in a timely manner. In this study, we compared the variations in the serum levels of several biochemical, hematological, inflammatory, cardiac, and coagulatory biomarkers between patients with COVID-19 and without COVID-19.


We would like to take the privilege of acknowledging the dedicated laboratory personnel of NAPFH for their cooperation and patience in carrying out this endeavor.

Citation: Shrestha MR, Basnet A, Tamang B, Khadka S, Maharjan R, Maharjan R, et al. (2023) Analysis of altered level of blood-based biomarkers in prognosis of COVID-19 patients. PLoS ONE 18(8): e0287117.

Editor: Muhammad Tarek Abdel Ghafar, Tanta University Faculty of Medicine, EGYPT

Received: March 6, 2022; Accepted: May 27, 2023; Published: August 4, 2023.

Copyright: © 2023 Shrestha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: The data underlying the results presented in the study are available from Dryad:

Funding: The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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