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Deregulation of Exosomal miRNAs in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Muhammad Zahid Hussain, Muhammad Shahbaz Haris, Muhammad Rizwan, Nida Sarosh Ashraf, Maryam Arshad, Ishrat Mahjabeen.


Exosomes are small-diameter endosomal vesicles secreted in all biological fluids and play biological/pathological roles in the cell. These pathological roles are played by exosome’s cargo molecules through inter-cellular communication. Exosomal cargo molecules contain proteins and miRNAs. miRNAs are small non-coding RNA fragments involved in the reduction of final protein output by destabilizing or suppressing the translation of target messenger RNA (mRNA). This deregulation of the protein due to miRNAs ultimately accelerates the process of disease pathogenesis.


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is referred to as a common inflammatory joint disorder. The associated symptoms are inflammation and lifetime joint dysfunction and increased mortality rate. The prevalence of RA in Western countries is approximately 1–2% while it appears to be 1% around the globe. The estimated prevalence of RA is relatively higher in Northern Europe and the United States between 0.5 to 1%. Among Asian countries.

Material and Methods:

The present study was conducted after prior approval from the COMSATS University Islamabad and military hospital Rawalpindi, Pakistan. 306 RA patients were recruited after confirmation by expert rheumatologists. Blood samples of equal number of age and gender-matched controls were also collected in the present study. Blood samples of RA patients and controls were stored at 4°C for further procedure.


Rheumatoid arthritis(RA) is prevalent cause of disability, moratility, and morbidity around the globe. RA is referred as a common inflammatory joint disorder and symptomatically characterized by joint inflammation, tenderness and swelling with synovial joint destruction. It is a multifactorial disease characterized by unknown etiologyy associated with complicated pathogenesis and severity. The prevalence of RA in the United States and northern Europe is 0.5–1%.


The authors are thankful to the patients and staff of the military hospital (MH), Rawalpindi, for their contribution in this research.

Citation: Hussain MZ, Haris MS, Rizwan M, Ashraf NS, Arshad M, Mahjabeen I (2023) Deregulation of exosomal miRNAs in rheumatoid arthritis patients. PLoS ONE 18(7): e0289301.

Editor: Novel Njweipi Chegou, Stellenbosch University, SOUTH AFRICA

Received: January 6, 2023; Accepted: July 17, 2023; Published: July 27, 2023.

Copyright: © 2023 Hussain et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


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