Mixed-mode chromatography (MMC) is a fast growing area in recent years, thanks to the new generation of mixed-mode stationary phases and better understanding of multimode interactions. MMC has superior applications in the separation of compounds that are not retained or not well resolved by typical reversed-phase LC methods, especially for polar and charged molecules. Due to the multiple retention modes that a single MMC column can offer, often MMC provides additional dimension to a separation method by adjusting the mobile phase conditions. Mixed-mode media is also an effective way to clean up complex sample matrices for purification purposes or for sensitive detection of trace amounts of analytes. In this article, we discuss mixed-mode stationary phases and separation mechanisms and review recent advances in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical applications including the analysis and/or purification of counterions, small molecule drugs, impurities, formulation excipients, peptides and proteins.
Mixed-mode chromatography; Pharmaceutics; Biopharmaceutics
Citation: Kelly Zhanga, Xiaodong Liub Reprint Of “Mixed-Mode Chromatography In Pharmaceutical And Biopharmaceutical Applications” http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2016.09.013
Received: 1 February 2016, Revised: 4 May 2016, Accepted: 5 May 2016, Available online: 16 September 2016
Copyright: © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license
Conclusion and perspectives
Mixed-mode chromatography provides unique selectivity especially for polar and charged analytes. The multiple interaction mechanisms allow the users to adjust the mobile phase/eluent conditions to promote certain interactions for certain analytes. MMC has advanced from original “secondary interaction” to purposely designed and controlled multi-mode interactions. The new generation of mixed-mode stationary phases is more robust and diverse. The recent commercialization of mixed-mode stationary phases greatly enhanced the applications of MMC.
We thank Xuefei Sun of Thermo Fisher Scientific for helping edit some of the references, Geoffrey Yeh and Sam Yang of Genentech for reviewing the manuscript.