Pharma Focus Asia

Risk Perception of Non-communicable Diseases: A Systematic Review on its Assessment and Associated Factors

The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing. Risk perception of NCDs is an important factor towards the uptake of preventive health interventions


The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing. Risk perception of NCDs is an important factor towards the uptake of preventive health interventions. There are various questionnaires assessing risk perception of NCDs, but no internationally standardized questionnaire has been available. Identification of factors associated with risk perception of NCDs may facilitate the development of targeted interventions.


According to the World Health Organization (WHO), non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are chronic diseases which tend to have long duration. The main types of NCD include cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes (DM). NCDs kill 41 million every year, which is equivalent to 71% of worldwide deaths. The total annual number of NCD deaths is expected to increase to 55 million if the current trend continues.

Material and Methods:

Research question formulation

The review question was developed using the PEO (population, exposure, outcome) concept [18]. The PICO (population, intervention, comparator, outcome) framework is commonly used in assessing the effectiveness of an intervention or therapy.

Data source and search strategy

The literature search was conducted in December 2021, including three databases: Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science. In addition, hand searching of the reference lists of included studies was undertaken to identify further relevant references


An individual’s risk perception of developing a disease is an important factor towards adopting healthy lifestyles and the uptake of preventive health interventions. To date, there has been no systematic review which has summarized the questionnaires assessing risk perception of NCDs and evaluated the evidence of factors influencing the risk perception of several major NCDs.


The authors would like to thank the Department of Public Health Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia, for the technical support.

Citation: Jane Ling MY, Ahmad N, Aizuddin AN (2023) Risk perception of non-communicable diseases: A systematic review on its assessment and associated factors. PLoS ONE 18(6): e0286518.

Editor: Ghobad Moradi, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN

Received: July 7, 2022; Accepted: May 17, 2023; Published: June 1, 2023.

Copyright: © 2023 Jane Ling et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting information files.

Funding: The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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